Jammu and Kashmir Geography

Jammu and Kashmir is one of the largest states of the Indian union covering and area of 2, 22,236 sq. kms. It lies between 32 17 to 36 58 North latitude and 73 26 to 80 30 East longitude.  

Jammu and Kashmir can be divided into four natural divisions namely

         The Shivalik range,

         The mountainous and semi-mountainous plains commonly known as the Kandi Belt.

         The Pir Panjal range and the Kashmir Valley.

         The Indus River comprising of Leh and Kargil.  

Kashmir is home to many low-lying valleys such as the Kashmir valley, the Tewi valley, Chenab Valley, Poonch Valley, the Sind Valley and Lidder valley.  The Himalayans divide the Kashmir valley from Ladakh while the Pir Panjal range separates it from the great plains of Northern India. River Jhelum is the only major river of the Himalayans flowing through the Kashmir valley while the rivers Indus, Tawi, Ravi and Chenab are the major rivers flowing through the state. Owing to its high altitude, Jammu and Kashmir is home to a lot of Himalayan glaciers. 

On the map of India, the state looks like a crown. To its north lie China and Russia. On its east is Chinese Tibet. On the South and South-West lie the states of Punjab and Himachal Pradesh. On the west is the North West Frontier Provinces of Pakistan, China and Russia. The nearness to the boundaries of foreign countries has made the position of the State most important from military point of view.

The climate of Jammu and Kashmir is varied due to its topography. Yet it enjoys all the four major seasons namely summer, winter spring and autumn. In the south of Jammu the climate is mostly monsoonal, yet it experiences very hot weather in the summers.   



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